EU-ECOWAS kindred did referable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable subordinateconduct until 1975 attributable to the certainty that ECOWAS barely came into creature on May 28th 1975 with the signing of Treaty of Lagos by its ingredient states (ECOWAS, 2010). Besides, antecedent to ECOWAS’ edifice in 1975, some of its ingredient states, chiefly the Francophundivided countries such as Benin, Cote d’Ivoire, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Senegal and Togo had been beginning ingredients of Associated African states and Madagascar (EAMA). This clump of countries had been actively sympathyed in the ‘regime of familiarity’ as enshrined in the Treaty of Rome (1957) which de- a sympathy inchoate the previous French and Belgian colonies with the EC (ACP, 2010). The future sympathy with these ex-colonies became a solution countenance of the process of European integration and to-boot controlmal the premise and rationale control following provisions (Reisen, 2007; Holland, 2002).
The Spiritlesswealth countries inchoate the ECOWAS clumping such as Gambia, Ghana, Nigeria and Sierra Leundivided did referable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable join-in in EC league advertisement until the UK presence to the EC in 1973. With respects to ex-colonies’ activities in EC league advertisement antecedent to 1973, it had been a deed of authority of harvest agenda by France (Holland, 2002). So, the inclusion of the ECOWAS Spiritlesswealth countries was involuntary owing the UK was pure-minded to entireay its appropriate trading preferences control bananas and sugar subordinate the EC umbrella and to avail its countenance to some previous colonies balance bilateral influence (European Commission, 2010a).
Past ECOWAS’ literature in 1975, EU-ECOWAS kindred enjoy been framed by the commerce administration subordinatestandings as polite-behaved-behaved as other harvest league provisions as contained in the company concurrences that the EU has entered into with developing countries in Africa, Caribbean, and Pacific (ACPs) countries (Globe Bank, 2007; Oyejide and Njinken, 2002). The ACPs prevalently comprises 79 countries (48 African, 16 Caribbean and 15 Pacific). The EU’s kindred with the ACPs are today inferior by the ACP-EU Company Concurrence attested in Cotonou, Benin in June 2000 which came into controlce in 2003 (ACP-EEC, 2005). Besides, it has past been revised and the revised Concurrence entered into controlce in July 2008. In a signification, twain ECOWAS and ACPs are air-tight linked yet the brochure centrees on EU-ECOWAS kindred with a purperplex to explication its specificity in unvarnished perspectives.
1.2 BACKGROUND OF ECOWAS
ECOWAS is a portional clump of fifteen West African countries, set-uped on May 28, 1975, with the signing of the Treaty of Lagos. ECOWAS is undivided of the pillars of the African Economic Community and its sidearm is to exalt economic league and integration. The balanceentire palpable of ECOWAS is to exalt entireiance and integration in disperplex to beget an economic and monetary confederation control inspiriting economic fruit and harvest in West Africa (ECOWAS, 2010a). The clumping contains a very extensive variation of economies in provisions of magnitude, harvest and implement (EBID, 2005).
There were 16 nations in the clump until very of-late when Mauritania spontaneously withdrew its ingredientship from ECOWAS. The countries include the 7 UEMOA countries of Benin, Burkina-Faso, Chad, Cote d’Ivoire, Mali, Niger, and Senegal. Other non-UEMOA ingredient countries are Cape-Verde, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Liberia, Nigeria, and Sierra Leone. The UEMOA is the French acronym of West African Economic and Monetary Confederation. It is an edifice of conception states of West Africa controlmal in 1994 to exalt economic integration inchoate countries that divide a spiritnear circulation, the CFA franc.
In provisions of victorys, UEMOA ingredient countries are set-uped toward elder portional integration with unified palpable tariffs than ECOWAS. It is twain a charge and monetary confederation and has set-uped portional structural and sectoral policies which ECOWAS is adopting. Inchoate ECOWAS to-boot, there is a West African Monetary Zundivided (WAMZ) which comprises a clump of five countries (chiefly English controlcible) that drawing to preface a spiritnear circulation, the Eco by the year 2015. The WAMZ was controlmed in 2000 to attempt and set-up a brawny firmly-fixed circulation to resembling the CFA franc. Though, the desired conception is control the CFA franc and Eco to coalesce, with a purperplex to giving entire of West Africa countries a individual firmly-fixed circulation (ECOWAS, 2010b).
1.3 OVERVIEW OF EU-ECOWAS RELATIONS
ECOWAS divides a semblance with the EU in its palpable and modes of league control portional integration inchoate ingredient states. Though, their deed of literature differs. Unlike the ECOWAS specimen, in which entire countries came concertedly at uniformly (negative Cape Verde which concomitant in 1976) to controlm an economic provision, barely six countries set-uped the prevalent EU provision, spanliness other European countries concomitant at opposed sharp-ends through its extension and presence device (Alaba, 2006). It has repeatedly been argued that integration in the West African sub-portion has amply been informed by the integration processes in Western Europe, largely owing of EU’s ‘commitment’ to portional integration (Smith, 2008; Ogbeidi, 2010).
A sharp-object of unlikelihood inchoate the brace clumpings besides, lies in their acts balance the years. Spanliness their acts could be a meditation of the raze of harvest of the ingredient states that constitutes the ingredientship of the sub-regional confederations, the most deep individual certaintyor is their raze of commitment towards achieving their conceptions. Unlike the EU provision, commitment to diversified protocol meant to arrange the victory of the expectation of ECOWAS has been very subsided and implementation targets enjoy never been expiration. Control specimen commerce liberalisation inchoate the ECOWAS portion has been generally subsided and undignified (UNCTAD, 2009). The corresponding acquiescence insufficiency applies to an ECOWAS protocol on uncounted movements of people, the exact of pernoctation and literature which was agreed as distant as tail 1979 (Globe Bank, 2007).
1.4 TRADE AND ECONOMIC STRUCTURE OF ECOWAS WITH EU
Control virtually entire ECOWAS countries, the EU is the deep trading severicipator (Eurostat, 2008). This eminent trust of the countries on the EU pass is amply attributable to their unvarnished links and the sort of their commerce patterns which has repeatedly made them commerce assuranceing (Fontagne, 2008; Greenidge, 1998). The economic edifice of the West African sub-portion is amply dominated by tillage which is air-tight followed by mining. Tillage contributed encircling 25.17%, to sub-regional GDP as at 2006, up from 24.19% in 1995, spanliness mining statemented control 22.13% slightly eminenter than 21.45 in 1995. Commerce contributed encircling 14.64% of the Clump’s GDP, down from 15.39% in 1995 (Ecostat, 2010). Most of the ECOWAS countries aim to be eminently appropriateised in a scant solution products such as petroleum and a scant unprocessed unroving pi such as coffee and cotton.
ECOWAS is the catholicst trading severicipator of entire the EU’s sub portional clumpings/cooperation. It statements control encircling 40% of whole commerce with the EU by portions (Eurostat, 2008). Extinguished of the fifteen ECOWAS countries, thirteen of these countries are ranked as Last Exposed Countries (LDCs) spanliness three are non-LDC (HDR, 2009). The non-LDC countries in the portion are Nigeria, Ghana and Cote d’Ivoire. These 3 non-LDC countries and Senegal to some size statement control the volume of commerce kindred with the EU. In 2008 EU’s rankings of African countries in provisions of compute of object commerced, Nigeria and Cote d’Ivoire ranked the 4th and 10th control entire EU meanings spanliness Nigeria, Senegal and Ghana were ranked 5th, 9th and 10th respectively control entire EU’s ship-produces (Eurostat, 2009). West Africa’s deep ship-produces are glaze from Nigeria (50% of West African ship-produces) and unroving poetical products (cocoa, bananas, pineapples, cope) in-great-measure from Côte d’Ivoire and Ghana (European Commission, 2009) spanliness Senegal is referable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributableed control groundnut (Bergtold et al, 2005). Control nfuture entire the countries the quantitative meaning items are afflictive equipments, chemical and chemical products and textiles, rubber and expirational products.
1.5 EU-ECOWAS EPA NEGOTIATIONS
As mentioned precedent, EU-ECOWAS kindred are inferior by the concurrences inchoate EU and ACP clump of States. In disperplex to object their palpables, the kindred inchoate the brace bodies enjoy unvarnishedly been framed by a course of assemblages. Control EU-ECOWAS kindred, the most active assemblages are Lomé Assemblages (1975-2000) and Cotonou Concurrence (2000-2020).
The Lomé Assemblages (1975-2000) assurance of indelicate regimes of assemblages from Lomé I which was primary attested in February 1975 in Lomé, Togo to Lomé IV which objected in 2000. The Lomé Assemblages are a commerce and cooperate concurrence inchoate the European Community (EC) and the ACP clump of states. The primary Lomé Assemblage was deattested to contribute a innovating framework of league inchoate the then European Community (EC) and developing ACP countries. The Lome Assemblages’ most deep manifestation is its non-reciprocity, which entireows ACP ship-produces trust uncounted way to the European pass spanliness enabling the ACP states to deeptain tariff barriers aggravate European object. It prefaced the STABEX and SYSMIN arrangement which were deattested to discharge ACP countries control the shortfentire in unroving ship-produce hues and mining indusattempt activities respectively attributable to discontinuance in the prices or give of pi (ACP-EEC, 1995; 1975).
The Lomé Assemblage was a commitment to an resembling company inchoate Europe and ACPs (Holland, 2002). A momentous repurperplex of the commerce concurrence/assemblage besides, shows a settlement of unresembling dominion kindred inchoate twain severies. Control specimen, the reciprocation section has ordinaryly been geared towards discourse ship-produce interests of European firms (Orbie, 2008) and the speculation control the Lomé assemblage itself was a meditation of Third Globe ware dominion, which the EU was pure-minded to keep-safe through its clear way to these pi via its ex-colonial links (Gibb, 2000).
Nevertheless, Lomé assemblages enjoy been considered as the hallmark of the EU’s administration with the Third globe and the most institutionalised of entire EU’s clump-to-clump colloquys. It referable attributable attributableiceable a eminent rate from a regime of familiarity to what could be denominated a controlum of company and league (Hurt, 2003; Holland, 2002). It has to-boot been argued by Crawford (2007) that Lomé Assemblage is the most weighty concurrence control Sub-Saharan Africa.
The Cotonou Concurrence (2000-2020) is the most late concurrence in the deed of ACP-EU Harvest League. It is inveterate on indelicate deep principles: company, competition, colloquy and interchangeable obligations, and opposediation as polite-behaved-behaved as portionalization (ACP-EEC, 2000). Undivided of the unsparing changes and essential elements of the Cotonou Concurrence sympathys commerce league inchoate EU-ACP states. This is referable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable extraordinary given the certainty that EU has detested commerce competencies and commerce administration implement has been a solution device of its palpable administration (Lightfoot, 2010; Orbie, 2008; Bretherton and Vogler, 1999). The most surprising sign of the innovating commerce league is the certainty that the non-reciprocal commerce preferences enjoy been replaced with a innovating draft of Economic Company Concurrences (EPAs). The EPAs are drafts aimed at creating a Uncounted Commerce Area (FTA) inchoate the EU and ACP countries (ACP-EEC, 2000).
The EPAs are a confutation to abiding stricture that the non-reciprocal and pure-minded preferential commerce concurrences extemporeered by the EU are inconsistent with WTO rules. Asever from the children of WTO compatibility, it was to-boot argued that bountiful commerce preferences were referable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable sufficient control economic conduct extempore (European Commission, 1995). It was hence seen as having objectd meagre consummation in provisions of promoting secure harvest in ACP countries. So, what does the EPA purport control EU-ECOWAS kindred?
The speculations on an EPA inchoate ECOWAS and the EU were working in Brussels in 2002 (ECA, 2007). Besides, the speculations enjoy so distant been fallacious attributable to some sympathys that the EPAs get control to catholic commerce imbalances in West African economies, as polite-behaved-behaved as adherence of persomal and portional beginningation by European meanings (Perez and Karingi, 2007). The refuse in meaning duties attributable to the preferential tariff encircleation has to-boot been a superior sympathy control West African countries (Busse and Grobmann, 2004). In feature, the reciprocation qualification indicated in the concurrence, involved that at some span anteriorly 2020, the ECOWAS countries must enjoy to referableorious up their economies to meanings from the EU countries. This may frequently control to commerce amusement, commerce figment, dropping of commerce produces and deindustrialisation (Globe Bank, 2007; Adenikinju and Alaba, 2005).
In a consider on the impressions of the EU-ECOWAS EPAs, Lang (2006) set-up that Ghana and chiefly Guinea-Bissau could induce up to 20% of their Government budget produces in deed of a liberal liberalisation of EU meanings. Although tariff produce falls were considered eminentest in Nigeria in arbitrary dollar provisions, those brace countries get be the most unnatural. In a homogeneous consider on the impressions of the EU-ACP EPAs in six ACP portions, Fontagne et al (2008:6-7), ACP ship-produces to the EU are controlecast to be 10 percent eminenter with the EPAs than subordinate the GSP/EBA discretion. On middle ACP countries are controlecast to induce 70 percent of tariff produces on EU meanings in the hanker blend. The most unnatural portion is ECOWAS. The implication of a dropping of tariff proceeds would transform into exoteric budget constraints and could hence perplex eminent harvestal challenges control ECOWAS countries.
Nevertheless, twain Cote d’Ivoire and Ghana agreed and objectorsed season EPAs with the EU in December 2007 (European Commission, 2009). These concurrences were largely entireay in attribute owing liberal portional EPAs could referable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable be agreed upon. Of these three catholicst trading severicipators with the EU, Nigeria opted extinguished of an season EPA. Control now, the counattempt can barely use from the ordinary EU Generalised Arrangement of Preferences (GSP). This is distant near fond than the nonreciprocal Lomé preferences owing the GSP covers scanter products and has stricter rules of beginning (Hurt, 2003). Though the Nigerian Government has twice applied to be attributed on the GSP+ status, the EU has unusual the applications purely control gregarious reasons (Nwoke, 2009).
The assurance of the West African portion is amply made up of Last Exposed Countries (European Commission, 2009). They enjoy an discretion referable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable to pass past they enjoy trust uncounted way to the EU subordinate the ‘Everything Yet Arms’ (EBA) draft (Orbie, 2008; Bilal, 2007). The EBA is the opposediation ingredient of Cotonuo Concurrence made in the composition of last exposed countries (LDCs) and non-LDCs. Control these thirteen countries, the EPA may referable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable raise attached uses balance the EBA negative control the technical and financial influence that the previous may raise (Adenikinju and Alaba, 2005). So, their raze of commitment to signing liberal EPA is ultimate. It wants sharp-ending extinguished that the smentire gains which faculty object from the EBA leadership are expected to pale loose as a movables of the EU speculations on EPAs (Kohnert, 2008). Besides, the quarrelsome sort of EBA draft attributable to its unilateral leading frames it near agreeable (Bilal, 2002). As Flint (2008:60) argues “the EU has eminentlighted elevate problems facing administrationmakers” by the disconnected into disconnected blocs of LDC and non-LDC. This is very normal of EU-ECOWAS kindred.
From the controlegoing, it is evident that in movables, the EPA get portray a weighty role in terminating the ECOWAS clump as the deep harvest severicipator of the EU. Antecedent to the EPA speculations, ECOWAS countries enjoy referable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable had eminent consummation at weightyly enlarging commerce inchoatest ingredient states. Intraregional commerce as a uniformity of whole commerce scum abundantly subsideder in African portional integration (UNCTAD, 2009). And, with the innovating EPAs device that seeks control unilateral speculation in action, commerce progress inchoatest ingredient states is elevate subordinatemined (Borrmann et al, 2005). Concisely, the EPA is injurious to the action of portional integration. Control EU-ECOWAS, the brace principles of reciprocation and deeper portional integration are likely to drag in opposed directions (Lang, 2006).
1.6 AID FOR TRADE AND DEMOCRACY PROMOTION IN
The Cooperate control Commerce leadership emerged inchoate the Doha Round extinguished of the want to succor entire countries to use from commerce i.e. to maximise the gains from commerce. Yet, insist control, and tonnage to collect, “cooperate control commerce” peaceful exceeds adapted implement (Globe Bank, 2005). The EU Cooperate control Commerce device adopted in October 2007 confirms the European commitment to contribute EUR2 billion per year in Commerce Related Countenance by 2010 and to extension spending control the extensiver Cooperate control Commerce agenda (ECDPM, 2009). A repurperplex of Cooperate control Commerce besides shows that donors enjoy objectd their pledges merely by applying the qualified WTO-OECD monitoring rules, withextinguished initiating any innovating projects (Brüntrup and Voionmaa, 2010). So, control ECOWAS countries whose tonnage texture and give-side constraints enjoy been a superior certaintyor in the stagnation of competitiveness and the proportionately meagre commerce and fruit act (AU, 2006), Cooperate control Commerce can barely be meaningful if it is transformd into unaffected young cooperate control utilisation.
Also, the children of democracy preferment in EU-ECOWAS kindred is past of expression than operation. Crawford (2005) controversy that the EU’s interests in Africa centre near on democracy preferment and past on the perceived burdens and assurance threats to Europe arising from gregarious fickleness and contest seems past instructive and subject of certainty.
The EPA speculations to set-up a Uncounted Commerce Zundivided inchoate EU and ECOWAS in length with Cotonuo concurrence control a bound of 12 years enjoy weighty implications on the economies of ECOWAS countries. Given the edifice and commerce patterns of ECOWAS countries in which manufactures statement control encircling 75% of the EU’s ship-produce to ECOWAS, liberal liberalisation of their economies get object in dropping of produce, deindustrialisation and get frame the countries to be past exposed in the global rule.
It is near to be seen if the IEPAs/EPAs speculations would produce commerce that get object in harvest and destitution contraction control the West Africa sub portion. The commerce league upon which EPAs is set-uped symbolises portional integration in principles yet its device of season EPAs inchoate separate countries of the portion and EBA control last exposed countries encourages unilateralism in action.
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