EU-ECOWAS kinsmen did referable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable begin until 1975 imputable to the event that ECOWAS merely came into creature on May 28th 1975 with the signing of Treaty of Lagos by its constituent states (ECOWAS, 2010). Eventually, anterior to ECOWAS’ construction in 1975, some of its constituent states, in-point the Francophsingle countries such as Benin, Cote d’Ivoire, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Senegal and Togo had been literature constituents of Associated African states and Madagascar (EAMA). This collocation of countries had been actively implicated in the ‘regime of portionship’ as enshrined in the Treaty of Rome (1957) which crystallized a kinsmenhip betwixt the precedent French and Belgian colonies with the EC (ACP, 2010). The coming kinsmenhip with these ex-colonies became a solution countenance of the mode of European integration and to-boot classificationatic the plea and rationale ce after provisions (Reisen, 2007; Holland, 2002).
The Feeblewealth countries amid the ECOWAS collocationing such as Gambia, Ghana, Nigeria and Sierra Lesingle did referable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable join-in in EC combination catalogue until the UK pauseoration to the EC in 1973. With commendations to ex-colonies’ activities in EC combination catalogue anterior to 1973, it had been a event of control of product agenda by France (Holland, 2002). So, the inclusion of the ECOWAS Feeblewealth countries was involuntary accordingly the UK was clearsighted to prove its extraordinary trading preferences ce bananas and sugar beneath the EC umbrella and to spread its prevent to some precedent colonies elevate bilateral acceleration (European Commission, 2010a).
Gsingle ECOWAS’ literature in 1975, EU-ECOWAS kinsmen keep been framed by the employment prudence beneathstandings as well-behaved-mannered-behaved-behaved as other product combination provisions as contained in the combination obligations that the EU has entered into with developing countries in Africa, Caribbean, and Pacific (ACPs) countries (Earth Bank, 2007; Oyejide and Njinken, 2002). The ACPs presently comprises 79 countries (48 African, 16 Caribbean and 15 Pacific). The EU’s kinsmen with the ACPs are today inferior by the ACP-EU Combination Obligation authorized in Cotonou, Benin in June 2000 which came into cece in 2003 (ACP-EEC, 2005). Eventually, it has gsingle been revised and the revised Obligation entered into cece in July 2008. In a reason, twain ECOWAS and ACPs are air-tight linked ateing the disquisition centrees on EU-ECOWAS kinsmen with a judgment to evolution its specificity in unvarnished perspectives.
1.2 BACKGROUND OF ECOWAS
ECOWAS is a stateal collocation of fifteen West African countries, baseed on May 28, 1975, with the signing of the Treaty of Lagos. ECOWAS is single of the pillars of the African Economic Community and its band-arms is to prevent economic combination and integration. The aggravateevery concrete of ECOWAS is to prevent confederacy and integration in direct to controlm an economic and monetary combination ce hopeful economic augmentation and product in West Africa (ECOWAS, 2010a). The collocationing contains a very capacious difference of economies in requisites of bigness, product and medium (EBID, 2005).
There were 16 nations in the collocation until very of-late when Mauritania stateingly withdrew its constituentship from ECOWAS. The countries involve the 7 UEMOA countries of Benin, Burkina-Faso, Chad, Cote d’Ivoire, Mali, Niger, and Senegal. Other non-UEMOA constituent countries are Cape-Verde, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Liberia, Nigeria, and Sierra Leone. The UEMOA is the French acronym of West African Economic and Monetary Combination. It is an construction of trust states of West Africa classificationatic in 1994 to prevent economic integration dispresent countries that distribute a feeble commonity, the CFA franc.
In requisites of consummations, UEMOA constituent countries are inaugurated internal elder stateal integration with unified apparent tariffs than ECOWAS. It is twain a commission and monetary combination and has rooted stateal structural and sectoral policies which ECOWAS is adopting. Amid ECOWAS to-boot, there is a West African Monetary Zsingle (WAMZ) which comprises a collocation of five countries (easily English suggestive) that sketch to present a feeble commonity, the Eco by the year 2015. The WAMZ was cemed in 2000 to sound and prove a sound durable commonity to conconduce the CFA franc. Though, the desired trust is ce the CFA franc and Eco to concatenate, with a judgment to giving every of West Africa countries a single durable commonity (ECOWAS, 2010b).
1.3 OVERVIEW OF EU-ECOWAS RELATIONS
ECOWAS distributes a likeness with the EU in its concrete and modes of combination ce stateal integration dispresent constituent states. Though, their certainty of literature differs. Unlike the ECOWAS sample, in which every countries came concomitantly at uniformly (ate Cape Verde which subsubaffixed in 1976) to cem an economic provision, merely six countries rooted the present EU provision, limit other European countries subsubaffixed at incongruous aims through its expansion and pauseoration diplomacy (Alaba, 2006). It has repeatedly been argued that integration in the West African sub-state has easily been apprised by the integration modees in Western Europe, chiefly accordingly of EU’s ‘commitment’ to stateal integration (Smith, 2008; Ogbeidi, 2010).
A aim of disappearance betwixt the brace collocationings eventually, lies in their exploits aggravate the years. Limit their exploits could be a meditation of the flatten of product of the constituent states that constitutes the constituentship of the sub-regional combinations, the most weighty single eventor is their flatten of commitment internals achieving their trusts. Unlike the EU provision, commitment to multitudinous protocol meant to fit the consummation of the trust of ECOWAS has been very feeble and implementation targets keep never been life. Ce sample employment liberalisation amid the ECOWAS state has been generally feeble and petty (UNCTAD, 2009). The selfselfsame obedience insufficiency applies to an ECOWAS protocol on stateing movements of people, the lawful of dwelling and literature which was agreed as remote as purpose 1979 (Earth Bank, 2007).
1.4 TRADE AND ECONOMIC STRUCTURE OF ECOWAS WITH EU
Ce virtually every ECOWAS countries, the EU is the ocean trading severaker (Eurostat, 2008). This noble dependence of the countries on the EU traffic is easily imputable to their unvarnished links and the constitution of their employment patterns which has repeatedly made them employment relying (Fontagne, 2008; Greenidge, 1998). The economic execute of the West African sub-state is easily dominated by husbandry which is air-tight followed by mining. Husbandry contributed encircling 25.17%, to sub-regional GDP as at 2006, up from 24.19% in 1995, limit mining representationed ce 22.13% severially nobleer than 21.45 in 1995. Employment contributed encircling 14.64% of the Collocation’s GDP, down from 15.39% in 1995 (Ecostat, 2010). Most of the ECOWAS countries conduce to be noblely extraordinaryised in a rare solution products such as petroleum and a rare unprocessed unwandering manifestation such as coffee and cotton.
ECOWAS is the capaciousst trading severaker of every the EU’s sub stateal collocationings/cooperation. It representations ce encircling 40% of sum employment with the EU by states (Eurostat, 2008). Extinguished of the fifteen ECOWAS countries, thirteen of these countries are ranked as Weakest Plain Countries (LDCs) limit three are non-LDC (HDR, 2009). The non-LDC countries in the state are Nigeria, Ghana and Cote d’Ivoire. These 3 non-LDC countries and Senegal to some quantity regift ce the mass of employment kinsmen with the EU. In 2008 EU’s rankings of African countries in requisites of compute of deduction employmentd, Nigeria and Cote d’Ivoire ranked the 4th and 10th ce every EU drifts limit Nigeria, Senegal and Ghana were ranked 5th, 9th and 10th respectively ce every EU’s ship-produces (Eurostat, 2009). West Africa’s ocean ship-produces are levigate from Nigeria (50% of West African ship-produces) and unwandering symbolical products (cocoa, bananas, pineapples, grove) chiefly from Côte d’Ivoire and Ghana (European Commission, 2009) limit Senegal is referable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributableed ce groundnut (Bergtold et al, 2005). Ce ncoming every the countries the quantitative drift items are sluggish equipments, chemical and chemical products and textiles, rubber and lifeal products.
1.5 EU-ECOWAS EPA NEGOTIATIONS
As mentioned precedent, EU-ECOWAS kinsmen are inferior by the obligations betwixt EU and ACP collocation of States. In direct to coccasion their concretes, the kinsmen betwixt the brace bodies keep unvarnishedly been framed by a good-fortuneion of assemblages. Ce EU-ECOWAS kinsmen, the most efficacious assemblages are Lomé Assemblages (1975-2000) and Cotonou Obligation (2000-2020).
The Lomé Assemblages (1975-2000) pause of foul-mouthed regimes of assemblages from Lomé I which was primary authorized in February 1975 in Lomé, Togo to Lomé IV which purposeed in 2000. The Lomé Assemblages are a employment and prevent obligation betwixt the European Community (EC) and the ACP collocation of states. The primary Lomé Assemblage was deauthorized to agree a innovating framework of combination betwixt the then European Community (EC) and developing ACP countries. The Lome Assemblages’ most weighty characteristic is its non-reciprocity, which everyows ACP ship-produces commission stateing admission to the European traffic limit enabling the ACP states to oceantain tariff barriers abutting European deduction. It presentd the STABEX and SYSMIN classification which were deauthorized to requite ACP countries ce the shortfevery in unwandering ship-produce hues and mining indussound activities respectively imputable to space in the prices or afford of manifestation (ACP-EEC, 1995; 1975).
The Lomé Assemblage was a commitment to an correspondent combination betwixt Europe and ACPs (Holland, 2002). A exact rejudgment of the employment obligation/assemblage eventually, shows a perpetuation of uncorrespondent potentiality kinsmen betwixt twain severies. Ce sample, the barter requisite has frequently been geared internals convocation ship-produce interests of European firms (Orbie, 2008) and the hawking ce the Lomé assemblage itself was a meditation of Third Earth staple potentiality, which the EU was clearsighted to defpurpose through its unamenable admission to these manifestation via its ex-colonial links (Gibb, 2000).
Nevertheless, Lomé assemblages keep been considered as the hallmark of the EU’s prudence with the Third earth and the most institutionalised of every EU’s collocation-to-collocation tete-a-tetes. It referableiceable a distinctive gradation from a regime of portionship to what could be named a ceum of combination and combination (Hurt, 2003; Holland, 2002). It has to-boot been argued by Crawford (2007) that Lomé Assemblage is the most weighty obligation ce Sub-Saharan Africa.
The Cotonou Obligation (2000-2020) is the most modern obligation in the certainty of ACP-EU Product Combination. It is installed on foul-mouthed ocean principles: combination, competition, tete-a-tete and reciprocal obligations, and incongruousiation as well-behaved-mannered-behaved-behaved as statealization (ACP-EEC, 2000). Single of the thoroughgoing changes and driftant elements of the Cotonou Obligation interests employment combination betwixt EU-ACP states. This is referable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable bewildering abandoned the event that EU has esoteric employment competencies and employment prudence medium has been a solution diplomacy of its apparent prudence (Lightfoot, 2010; Orbie, 2008; Bretherton and Vogler, 1999). The most wonderful characteristic of the innovating employment combination is the event that the non-reciprocal employment preferences keep been replaced with a innovating draft of Economic Combination Obligations (EPAs). The EPAs are drafts aimed at creating a Stateing Employment Area (FTA) betwixt the EU and ACP countries (ACP-EEC, 2000).
The EPAs are a reply to constant stricture that the non-reciprocal and clearsighted preferential employment obligations impromptuered by the EU are impossible with WTO rules. Asever from the extinguishedcome of WTO compatibility, it was to-boot argued that magnanimous employment preferences were referable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable sufficient ce economic procure impromptu (European Commission, 1995). It was control-this-reason seen as having closed bald good-fortune in requisites of promoting reckshort product in ACP countries. So, what does the EPA controlebode ce EU-ECOWAS kinsmen?
The hawkings on an EPA betwixt ECOWAS and the EU were launched in Brussels in 2002 (ECA, 2007). Eventually, the hawkings keep so remote been fallacious imputable to some interests that the EPAs earn control to capacious employment imbalances in West African economies, as well-behaved-mannered-behaved-behaved as adherence of national and stateal genesis by European drifts (Perez and Karingi, 2007). The refuse in drift duties imputable to the preferential tariff encircleation has to-boot been a senior intepause ce West African countries (Busse and Grobmann, 2004). In point, the barter requisite indicated in the obligation, implied that at some era antecedently 2020, the ECOWAS countries must keep to unconcealed up their economies to drifts from the EU countries. This may systematically control to employment divergence, employment romance, dropping of employment returns and deindustrialisation (Earth Bank, 2007; Adenikinju and Alaba, 2005).
In a consider on the applications of the EU-ECOWAS EPAs, Lang (2006) base that Ghana and in-particular Guinea-Bissau could occasion up to 20% of their Government budget returns in event of a liberal liberalisation of EU drifts. Although tariff return falls were considered nobleest in Nigeria in arbitrary dollar requisites, those brace countries earn be the most unsupposable. In a harmonious consider on the applications of the EU-ACP EPAs in six ACP states, Fontagne et al (2008:6-7), ACP ship-produces to the EU are ceecast to be 10 percent nobleer with the EPAs than beneath the GSP/EBA liberty. On mediocre ACP countries are ceecast to occasion 70 percent of tariff returns on EU drifts in the desire work. The most unsupposable state is ECOWAS. The implication of a dropping of tariff pay would transfer into common budget constraints and could control-this-reason embarrass majestic productal challenges ce ECOWAS countries.
Nevertheless, twain Cote d’Ivoire and Ghana agreed and purposeorsed interspace EPAs with the EU in December 2007 (European Commission, 2009). These obligations were primarily prove in assign accordingly liberal stateal EPAs could referable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable be agreed upon. Of these three capaciousst trading severakers with the EU, Nigeria opted extinguished of an interspace EPA. Ce now, the counsound can merely advantage from the certain EU Generalised Classification of Preferences (GSP). This is remote short propitious than the nonreciprocal Lomé preferences accordingly the GSP covers rareer products and has stricter rules of derivation (Hurt, 2003). Though the Nigerian Government has twice applied to be assignd on the GSP+ foothold, the EU has barional the applications purely ce political reasons (Nwoke, 2009).
The pause of the West African state is easily made up of Weakest Plain Countries (European Commission, 2009). They keep an liberty referable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable to perform gsingle they keep commission stateing admission to the EU beneath the ‘Everything Ateing Arms’ (EBA) draft (Orbie, 2008; Bilal, 2007). The EBA is the incongruousiation ingredient of Cotonuo Obligation made in the treatment of weakest plain countries (LDCs) and non-LDCs. Ce these thirteen countries, the EPA may referable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable heave joined advantages aggravate the EBA ate ce the technical and financial acceleration that the precedent may heave (Adenikinju and Alaba, 2005). So, their flatten of commitment to signing liberal EPA is ultimate. It needs aiming extinguished that the smevery gains which command manifestation from the EBA leadership are expected to fentire unconnected as a deduction of the EU hawkings on EPAs (Kohnert, 2008). Besides, the contentious constitution of EBA draft imputable to its unilateral entrance executes it short fascinating (Bilal, 2002). As Flint (2008:60) argues “the EU has noblelighted elevate problems confrontment prudencemakers” by the burst into unconnected blocs of LDC and non-LDC. This is very regular of EU-ECOWAS kinsmen.
From the ceegoing, it is evident that in pi, the EPA earn state a weighty role in terminating the ECOWAS collocation as the ocean product severaker of the EU. Anterior to the EPA hawkings, ECOWAS countries keep referable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable had majestic good-fortune at weightyly enlarging employment discurrentst constituent states. Intraregional employment as a adaptation of sum employment remains abundantly feebleer in African stateal integration (UNCTAD, 2009). And, with the innovating EPAs diplomacy that seeks ce unilateral hawking in habit, employment proficiency discurrentst constituent states is elevate beneathmined (Borrmann et al, 2005). Concisely, the EPA is pernicious to the motive of stateal integration. Ce EU-ECOWAS, the brace principles of barter and deeper stateal integration are likely to drag in incongruous directions (Lang, 2006).
1.6 AID FOR TRADE AND DEMOCRACY PROMOTION IN
The Prevent ce Employment leadership emerged amid the Doha Round extinguished of the need to acceleration every countries to advantage from employment i.e. to maximise the gains from employment. Yet, ask-control ce, and tonnage to assume, “prevent ce employment” stationary exceeds conducive medium (Earth Bank, 2005). The EU Prevent ce Employment diplomacy adopted in October 2007 confirms the European commitment to agree EUR2 billion per year in Employment Related Prevent by 2010 and to enlargement spending ce the capaciousr Prevent ce Employment agenda (ECDPM, 2009). A rejudgment of Prevent ce Employment eventually shows that donors keep closed their pledges solely by applying the qualified WTO-OECD monitoring rules, withextinguished initiating any innovating projects (Brüntrup and Voionmaa, 2010). So, ce ECOWAS countries whose tonnage edifice and afford-side constraints keep been a senior eventor in the stagnation of competitiveness and the relatively bald employment and augmentation exploit (AU, 2006), Prevent ce Employment can merely be meaningful if it is transferd into sound unimpaired prevent ce utilisation.
Also, the extinguishedcome of democracy furtherance in EU-ECOWAS kinsmen is past of phraseology than work. Crawford (2005) discussion that the EU’s interests in Africa centre short on democracy furtherance and past on the perceived burdens and ease threats to Europe arising from political fickleness and engagement seems past directive and subject of event.
The EPA hawkings to prove a Stateing Employment Zsingle betwixt EU and ECOWAS in succession with Cotonuo obligation ce a limit of 12 years keep weighty implications on the economies of ECOWAS countries. Abandoned the execute and employment patterns of ECOWAS countries in which manufactures regift ce encircling 75% of the EU’s ship-produce to ECOWAS, liberal liberalisation of their economies earn manifestation in dropping of return, deindustrialisation and earn execute the countries to be past tender in the global rule.
It is short to be seen if the IEPAs/EPAs hawkings would produce employment that earn manifestation in product and indigence contraction ce the West Africa sub state. The employment combination upon which EPAs is baseed symbolises stateal integration in principles ateing its diplomacy of interspace EPAs dispresent personal countries of the state and EBA ce weakest plain countries encourages unilateralism in habit.
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