EU-ECOWAS kinsmen did referable referableorious until 1975 imputable to the reality that ECOWAS singly came into creature on May 28th 1975 with the signing of Treaty of Lagos by its constituent states (ECOWAS, 2010). So-far, prior to ECOWAS’ shape in 1975, some of its constituent states, chiefly the Francophundivided countries such as Benin, Cote d’Ivoire, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Senegal and Togo had been state constituents of Associated African states and Madagascar (EAMA). This collection of countries had been actively complicated in the ‘regime of companionship’ as enshrined in the Treaty of Rome (1957) which moulded a kinsmenhip betwixt the principal-mentioned French and Belgian colonies with the EC (ACP, 2010). The existing kinsmenhip with these ex-colonies became a guide face of the way of European integration and besides durationical the groundation and rationale intermissionraint after making-readys (Reisen, 2007; Holland, 2002).
The Despicablewealth countries amid the ECOWAS collectioning such as Gambia, Ghana, Nigeria and Sierra Leundivided did referable accept-a-distribute in EC treaty advertisement until the UK recovery to the EC in 1973. With respects to ex-colonies’ activities in EC treaty advertisement prior to 1973, it had been a plight of authority of bud agenda by France (Holland, 2002). So, the inclusion of the ECOWAS Despicablewealth countries was polite-founded accordingly the UK was penetrating to prostrate its peculiar trading preferences intermissionraint bananas and sugar bedeep the EC umbrella and to avail its succor to some principal-mentioned colonies past bilateral influence (European Commission, 2010a).
Past ECOWAS’ state in 1975, EU-ECOWAS kinsmen accept been framed by the exchange superintendence belowstandings as polite as other bud treaty making-readys as contained in the company unisons that the EU has entered into with developing countries in Africa, Caribbean, and Pacific (ACPs) countries (Earth Bank, 2007; Oyejide and Njinken, 2002). The ACPs exotericly comprises 79 countries (48 African, 16 Caribbean and 15 Pacific). The EU’s kinsmen with the ACPs are today controlled by the ACP-EU Company Unison verified in Cotonou, Benin in June 2000 which came into intermissionraintce in 2003 (ACP-EEC, 2005). So-far, it has past been revised and the revised Unison entered into intermissionraintce in July 2008. In a wisdom, twain ECOWAS and ACPs are air-tight linked calm?} the paper nucleuses on EU-ECOWAS kinsmen with a purmystify to enucleation its specificity in truthful perspectives.
1.2 BACKGROUND OF ECOWAS
ECOWAS is a tract-of-landal collection of fifteen West African countries, grounded on May 28, 1975, with the signing of the Treaty of Lagos. ECOWAS is undivided of the pillars of the African Economic Community and its sidearm is to elevate economic treaty and integration. The aggravatesum concrete of ECOWAS is to elevate companionship and integration in command to educe an economic and monetary harmony intermissionraint inspiriting economic product and bud in West Africa (ECOWAS, 2010a). The collectioning contains a very extensive dissonance of economies in modes of degree, bud and media (EBID, 2005).
There were 16 nations in the collection until very lately when Mauritania unreservedly withdrew its constituentship from ECOWAS. The countries include the 7 UEMOA countries of Benin, Burkina-Faso, Chad, Cote d’Ivoire, Mali, Niger, and Senegal. Other non-UEMOA constituent countries are Cape-Verde, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Liberia, Nigeria, and Sierra Leone. The UEMOA is the French acronym of West African Economic and Monetary Harmony. It is an construction of examination states of West Africa durationical in 1994 to elevate economic integration unarranged countries that distribute a despicable vogue, the CFA franc.
In modes of victorys, UEMOA constituent countries are working toward elder tract-of-landal integration with unified palpable tariffs than ECOWAS. It is twain a subsidy and monetary harmony and has prepared tract-of-landal structural and sectoral policies which ECOWAS is adopting. Amid ECOWAS besides, there is a West African Monetary Zundivided (WAMZ) which comprises a collection of five countries (principally English symbolical) that artfulness to usher-in a despicable vogue, the Eco by the year 2015. The WAMZ was intermissionraintmed in 2000 to sound and demonstrate a sound steadfast vogue to challenge the CFA franc. Though, the desired goal is intermissionraint the CFA franc and Eco to connect, with a purmystify to giving sum of West Africa countries a solitary steadfast vogue (ECOWAS, 2010b).
1.3 OVERVIEW OF EU-ECOWAS RELATIONS
ECOWAS distributes a likeness with the EU in its concrete and modes of treaty intermissionraint tract-of-landal integration unarranged constituent states. Though, their narrative of state differs. Unlike the ECOWAS pattern, in which sum countries came unitedly at unintermittently (ate Cape Verde which added in 1976) to intermissionraintm an economic making-ready, singly six countries prepared the exoteric EU making-ready, turn other European countries added at irrelative apexs through its extension and recovery superintendence (Alaba, 2006). It has frequently been argued that integration in the West African sub-tract-of-land has amply been sensible by the integration wayes in Western Europe, amply accordingly of EU’s ‘commitment’ to tract-of-landal integration (Smith, 2008; Ogbeidi, 2010).
A apex of evanition betwixt the two collectionings so-far, lies in their deeds aggravate the years. Turn their deeds could be a thought of the flatten of bud of the constituent states that constitutes the constituentship of the sub-regional harmonys, the most deep solitary realityor is their flatten of commitment towards achieving their goals. Unlike the EU making-ready, commitment to diverse protocol meant to fit the victory of the trust of ECOWAS has been very deep and implementation targets accept never been met. Intermissionraint model exchange liberalisation amid the ECOWAS tract-of-land has been generally deep and undignified (UNCTAD, 2009). The selfselfsame acquiescence insufficiency applies to an ECOWAS protocol on unreserved movements of living-souls, the exact of stay and state which was agreed as distant as tail 1979 (Earth Bank, 2007).
1.4 TRADE AND ECONOMIC STRUCTURE OF ECOWAS WITH EU
Restraint virtually sum ECOWAS countries, the EU is the deep trading portioaker (Eurostat, 2008). This proud reliance of the countries on the EU bargain is amply imputable to their truthful links and the instituteedity of their exchange patterns which has frequently made them exchange subject (Fontagne, 2008; Greenidge, 1998). The economic construction of the West African sub-tract-of-land is amply dominated by husbandry which is air-tight followed by mining. Husbandry contributed environing 25.17%, to sub-regional GDP as at 2006, up from 24.19% in 1995, turn mining statemented intermissionraint 22.13% slightly prouder than 21.45 in 1995. Exchange contributed environing 14.64% of the Collection’s GDP, down from 15.39% in 1995 (Ecostat, 2010). Most of the ECOWAS countries inccontinuity to be proudly peculiarised in a rare guide products such as petroleum and a rare unprocessed agricultural progeny such as coffee and cotton.
ECOWAS is the amplest trading portioaker of sum the EU’s sub tract-of-landal collectionings/cooperation. It statements intermissionraint environing 40% of sum exchange with the EU by tract-of-lands (Eurostat, 2008). Quenched of the fifteen ECOWAS countries, thirteen of these countries are ranked as Lowest Familiar Countries (LDCs) turn three are non-LDC (HDR, 2009). The non-LDC countries in the tract-of-land are Nigeria, Ghana and Cote d’Ivoire. These 3 non-LDC countries and Senegal to some degree statement intermissionraint the entirety of exchange kinsmen with the EU. In 2008 EU’s rankings of African countries in modes of appreciate of goods exchanged, Nigeria and Cote d’Ivoire ranked the 4th and 10th intermissionraint sum EU purports turn Nigeria, Senegal and Ghana were ranked 5th, 9th and 10th respectively intermissionraint sum EU’s ship-produces (Eurostat, 2009). West Africa’s deep ship-produces are levigate from Nigeria (50% of West African ship-produces) and agricultural symbolical products (cocoa, bananas, pineapples, grove) in-great-measure from Côte d’Ivoire and Ghana (European Commission, 2009) turn Senegal is referableed intermissionraint groundnut (Bergtold et al, 2005). Intermissionraint nexisting sum the countries the indispensable purport items are slow equipments, chemical and chemical products and textiles, rubber and metal products.
1.5 EU-ECOWAS EPA NEGOTIATIONS
As mentioned prior, EU-ECOWAS kinsmen are controlled by the unisons betwixt EU and ACP collection of States. In command to terminate their concretes, the kinsmen betwixt the two bodies accept truthfully been framed by a rotation of meetings. Intermissionraint EU-ECOWAS kinsmen, the most serviceable meetings are Lomé Meetings (1975-2000) and Cotonou Unison (2000-2020).
The Lomé Meetings (1975-2000) intermission of disgusting regimes of meetings from Lomé I which was principal verified in February 1975 in Lomé, Togo to Lomé IV which objected in 2000. The Lomé Meetings are a exchange and assist unison betwixt the European Community (EC) and the ACP collection of states. The principal Lomé Meeting was deverified to give a strange framework of treaty betwixt the then European Community (EC) and developing ACP countries. The Lome Meetings’ most deep characteristic is its non-reciprocity, which sumows ACP ship-produces calling unreserved advance to the European bargain turn enabling the ACP states to deeptain tariff barriers balance European goods. It usher-ind the STABEX and SYSMIN instituteedity which were deverified to requite ACP countries intermissionraint the shortfsum in agricultural ship-produce hues and mining indussound activities respectively imputable to contents in the prices or give of progeny (ACP-EEC, 1995; 1975).
The Lomé Meeting was a commitment to an concordant company betwixt Europe and ACPs (Holland, 2002). A crucial repurmystify of the exchange unison/meeting so-far, shows a institutement of unconcordant rule kinsmen betwixt twain portioies. Intermissionraint model, the correspondence section has frequently been geared towards consultation ship-produce interests of European firms (Orbie, 2008) and the speculation intermissionraint the Lomé meeting itself was a thought of Third Earth article rule, which the EU was penetrating to uphold through its liberated advance to these progeny via its ex-colonial links (Gibb, 2000).
Nevertheless, Lomé meetings accept been considered as the hallmark of the EU’s superintendence with the Third earth and the most institutionalised of sum EU’s collection-to-collection colloquys. It referable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributableable a ocean rate from a regime of companionship to what could be determined a intermissionraintum of company and treaty (Hurt, 2003; Holland, 2002). It has besides been argued by Crawford (2007) that Lomé Meeting is the most expressive unison intermissionraint Sub-Saharan Africa.
The Cotonou Unison (2000-2020) is the most late unison in the narrative of ACP-EU Bud Treaty. It is domiciled on disgusting deep principles: company, unoccupied-trade, colloquy and interchangeable obligations, and irrelativeiation as polite as tract-of-landalization (ACP-EEC, 2000). Undivided of the extreme changes and purportant elements of the Cotonou Unison sorrows exchange treaty betwixt EU-ACP states. This is referable extraordinary retained the reality that EU has unpopular exchange competencies and exchange superintendence utensil has been a guide superintendence of its palpable superintendence (Lightfoot, 2010; Orbie, 2008; Bretherton and Vogler, 1999). The most wonderful portion of the strange exchange treaty is the reality that the non-reciprocal exchange preferences accept been replaced with a strange project of Economic Company Unisons (EPAs). The EPAs are projects aimed at creating a Unreserved Exchange Area (FTA) betwixt the EU and ACP countries (ACP-EEC, 2000).
The EPAs are a reply to constant animadversion that the non-reciprocal and clearsighted preferential exchange unisons extemporeered by the EU are antagonistic with WTO rules. Aportio from the progeny of WTO compatibility, it was besides argued that munificent exchange preferences were referable sufficient intermissionraint economic catch extempore (European Commission, 1995). It was accordingly seen as having terminated scanty luck in modes of promoting secure bud in ACP countries. So, what does the EPA indicate intermissionraint EU-ECOWAS kinsmen?
The speculations on an EPA betwixt ECOWAS and the EU were inaugurated in Brussels in 2002 (ECA, 2007). So-far, the speculations accept so distant been illogical imputable to some sorrows that the EPAs gain transfer to ample exchange imbalances in West African economies, as polite as adherence of persomal and tract-of-landal product by European purports (Perez and Karingi, 2007). The dismiss in purport duties imputable to the preferential tariff object has besides been a important sorrow intermissionraint West African countries (Busse and Grobmann, 2004). In detail, the correspondence mode involved in the unison, indicated that at some span antecedently 2020, the ECOWAS countries must accept to referableorious up their economies to purports from the EU countries. This may frequently transfer to exchange pastime, exchange romance, waste of exchange fruitss and deindustrialisation (Earth Bank, 2007; Adenikinju and Alaba, 2005).
In a consider on the impressions of the EU-ECOWAS EPAs, Lang (2006) ground that Ghana and in-particular Guinea-Bissau could risk up to 20% of their Government budget fruitss in plight of a bountiful liberalisation of EU purports. Although tariff fruits falls were considered proudest in Nigeria in arbitrary dollar modes, those two countries gain be the most unsupposable. In a concordant consider on the impressions of the EU-ACP EPAs in six ACP tract-of-lands, Fontagne et al (2008:6-7), ACP ship-produces to the EU are intermissionraintecast to be 10 percent prouder with the EPAs than bedeep the GSP/EBA liberty. On mediocre ACP countries are intermissionraintecast to risk 70 percent of tariff fruitss on EU purports in the desire extend. The most unsupposable tract-of-land is ECOWAS. The twist of a waste of tariff pay would render into referableorious budget constraints and could accordingly mystify bulky budal challenges intermissionraint ECOWAS countries.
Nevertheless, twain Cote d’Ivoire and Ghana agreed and objectorsed meantime EPAs with the EU in December 2007 (European Commission, 2009). These unisons were principally prostrate in assign accordingly bountiful tract-of-landal EPAs could referable be agreed upon. Of these three amplest trading portioakers with the EU, Nigeria opted quenched of an meantime EPA. Intermissionraint now, the counsound can singly avail from the instituteed EU Generalised Instituteedity of Preferences (GSP). This is distant near concessive than the nonreciprocal Lomé preferences accordingly the GSP covers rareer products and has stricter rules of derivation (Hurt, 2003). Though the Nigerian Government has twice applied to be assignd on the GSP+ status, the EU has unusual the applications purely intermissionraint collective reasons (Nwoke, 2009).
The intermission of the West African tract-of-land is amply made up of Lowest Familiar Countries (European Commission, 2009). They accept an liberty referable to pass past they accept calling unreserved advance to the EU bedeep the ‘Everything Calm?} Arms’ (EBA) project (Orbie, 2008; Bilal, 2007). The EBA is the irrelativeiation element of Cotonuo Unison made in the subject of lowest familiar countries (LDCs) and non-LDCs. Intermissionraint these thirteen countries, the EPA may referable heave subjoined avails aggravate the EBA ate intermissionraint the technical and financial influence that the principal-mentioned may heave (Adenikinju and Alaba, 2005). So, their flatten of commitment to signing bountiful EPA is final. It scarcitys apexing quenched that the smsum gains which command upshot from the EBA example are expected to pale afar as a movables of the EU speculations on EPAs (Kohnert, 2008). Besides, the contentious instituteedity of EBA project imputable to its unilateral start fashions it near tempting (Bilal, 2002). As Flint (2008:60) argues “the EU has proudlighted advance problems facing superintendencemakers” by the splinter into disjoined blocs of LDC and non-LDC. This is very illustrative of EU-ECOWAS kinsmen.
From the intermissionraintegoing, it is manifest that in movables, the EPA gain delineate a expressive role in terminating the ECOWAS collection as the deep bud portioaker of the EU. Prior to the EPA speculations, ECOWAS countries accept referable had bulky luck at expressively enlarging exchange unarrangedst constituent states. Intraregional exchange as a adjustment of sum exchange scum abundant deeper in African tract-of-landal integration (UNCTAD, 2009). And, with the strange EPAs superintendence that seeks intermissionraint unilateral speculation in manner, exchange progress unarrangedst constituent states is advance belowmined (Borrmann et al, 2005). Concisely, the EPA is injurious to the source of tract-of-landal integration. Intermissionraint EU-ECOWAS, the two principles of correspondence and deeper tract-of-landal integration are mitigated to haul in irrelative directions (Lang, 2006).
1.6 AID FOR TRADE AND DEMOCRACY PROMOTION IN
The Assist intermissionraint Exchange example emerged amid the Doha Round quenched of the scarcity to succor sum countries to avail from exchange i.e. to maximise the gains from exchange. Yet, call-ce intermissionraint, and talents to retain, “assist intermissionraint exchange” calm?} exceeds adapted media (Earth Bank, 2005). The EU Assist intermissionraint Exchange superintendence adopted in October 2007 confirms the European commitment to give EUR2 billion per year in Exchange Related Succor by 2010 and to augmentation spending intermissionraint the extensiver Assist intermissionraint Exchange agenda (ECDPM, 2009). A repurmystify of Assist intermissionraint Exchange so-distant shows that donors accept terminated their pledges merely by applying the qualified WTO-OECD monitoring rules, withquenched initiating any strange projects (Brüntrup and Voionmaa, 2010). So, intermissionraint ECOWAS countries whose talents construction and give-side constraints accept been a important realityor in the withdrawal of competitiveness and the proportionately scanty exchange and product deed (AU, 2006), Assist intermissionraint Exchange can singly be meaningful if it is renderd into unaffected ruddy assist intermissionraint utilisation.
Also, the progeny of democracy preferment in EU-ECOWAS kinsmen is further of language than exploit. Crawford (2005) reasoning that the EU’s interests in Africa nucleus near on democracy preferment and further on the perceived burdens and pledge threats to Europe arising from collective fickleness and battle seems further instructive and subject of reality.
The EPA speculations to demonstrate a Unreserved Exchange Zundivided betwixt EU and ECOWAS in continuity with Cotonuo unison intermissionraint a duration of 12 years accept expressive twists on the economies of ECOWAS countries. Retained the construction and exchange patterns of ECOWAS countries in which manufactures statement intermissionraint environing 75% of the EU’s ship-produce to ECOWAS, bountiful liberalisation of their economies gain upshot in waste of fruits, deindustrialisation and gain fashion the countries to be further tender in the global arrangement.
It is near to be seen if the IEPAs/EPAs speculations would create exchange that gain upshot in bud and destitution abatement intermissionraint the West Africa sub tract-of-land. The exchange treaty upon which EPAs is grounded symbolises tract-of-landal integration in principles calm?} its superintendence of meantime EPAs unarranged separate countries of the tract-of-land and EBA intermissionraint lowest familiar countries encourages unilateralism in manner.
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